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Month: March 2014
Though he is most well known for his sculptures incorporating fragments of crushed automobiles, John Chamberlain is also a highly accomplished graphic artist. These prints translate the artist’s ability to merge color and abstract form into dynamic interesting prints which capture the feeling of his sculptural works.
About The Artist:
Born in 1927 in Rochester, Indiana, John Chamberlain grew up in Chicago. After serving in the United States Navy from 1943 to 1946, he attended the Art Institute of Chicago (1951–52) and Black Mountain College (1955–56). Chamberlain moved to New York in 1956 and the following year made Shortstop, his first sculpture incorporating automobile parts. His work was included in the “Art of Assemblage” exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, in 1961, and he began showing at Leo Castelli’s New York gallery in 1962. Chamberlain had his first retrospective in 1971, at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, and the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, held a second retrospective in 1986. He currently lives and works on Shelter Island, New York.
In 1993 Chamberlain received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Contemporary Sculpture from International Sculpture Center and also the Skowhegan Medal for Sculpture from the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture. In 1997 he was awarded National Arts Club Artists Award[/fusion_builder_column]
Chamberlain’s work was widely acclaimed in the early 1960s. His sculpture was included in The Art of Assemblage at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, in 1961, and the same year he participated in the Såo Paulo Bienal. From 1962, Chamberlain showed frequently at the Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, and in 1964 his work was exhibited at the Venice Biennale. While he continued to make sculpture from auto parts, Chamberlain also experimented with other mediums. From 1963 to 1965, he made geometric paintings with sprayed automobile paint. In 1966, the same year he received the first of two fellowships from the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, he began a series of sculptures of rolled, folded, and tied urethane foam. These were followed in 1970 by sculptures of melted or crushed metal and heat-crumpled Plexiglas. Chamberlain’s work was presented in a retrospective at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, in 1971.
In the early 1970s, Chamberlain began once more to make large works from automobile parts. Until the mid-1970s, the artist assembled these auto sculptures on the ranch of collector Stanley Marsh in Amarillo, Texas. These works were shown in the sculpture garden at the Dag Hammarskjï¿½ld Plaza, New York, in 1973 and at the Contemporary Arts Museum, Houston, in 1975. In 1977, Chamberlain began experimenting with photography taken with a panoramic Wide-lux camera. His next major retrospective was held at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, in 1986; the museum simultaneously copublished John Chamberlain: A Catalogue Raisonné of the Sculpture 1954–1985, authored by Julie Sylvester. In 1993, Chamberlain received both the Skowhegan Medal for Sculpture and the Lifetime Achievement Award in Contemporary Sculpture from the International Sculpture Center, Washington, D.C. The artist has lived and worked in Sarasota, Florida, since 1980.
1927 Born in Rochester, Indiana
1951 Studied at the Art Institute of Chicago and the
1952 University of Illinois
1955 Studied at Black Mountain College, North Carolina
1957 Wells Street Gallery, Chicago, Illinois
1960 Martha Jackson Gallery, New York, New York (January)
1962 Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, New York (January),
Dilexi Gallery, Los Angeles, California (November)
1963 Pace Gallery, Boston, Massachusetts (November)
Dilexi Gallery, San Francisco, California (December)
1964 Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, New York (April)
Galerie Ileana Sonnabend, Paris, France (April)
1965 Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, New York (January)
1966 Dwan Gallery, Los Angeles, California (November)
1966 Receives John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellowship
1967 Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio (January) — catalogue
Galerie Rudolf Zwirner, Cologne, Germany (October)
1968 Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati, Ohio
1969 Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, New York (February)
Mizuno Gallery, Los Angeles, California (October)
1970 Soft and Hard / Recent Sculpture,” Logiudice Gallery, Chicago, Illinois (February) Couches,Locksley—Shea Gallery, Minneapolis, Minnesota (May)
1990 Elected member of the American Academy and Institute of Arts & Letters
1993 Receives awards: Lifetime Achievement Award in Contemporary Sculpture from International Sculpture Center, Washington, D.C.; Skowhegan Medal for Sculpture from the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, Maine
1997 Receives the National Arts Club Artists Award, New York
John Chamberlain: A Retrospective Exhibition. Ed. Diane Waldman. New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 1971. Interviews by Elizabeth C. Baker, Donald Judd, and Diane Waldman.
•John Chamberlain: Reliefs, 1960–1982. Sarasota, Fla.: The John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art, 1983. Text and interview by Michael Auping.
•John Chamberlain: A Catalogue Raisonné of the Sculpture, 1954–1985. Ed. Julie Sylvester. New York: Hudson Hills Press, in association with The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, 1986. Text by Klaus Kertess.
•John Chamberlain: Gondolas and Dooms Day Flotilla. New York: Dia Center for the Arts, 1991. Interviews by Julie Sylvester and Lawrence Weiner.
•John Chamberlain. Baden-Baden: Staatliche Kunsthalle, in association with Cantz, Ostfildern, 1991. Texts by Angelika Beckmann, John Chamberlain, Donald Judd, and Jochen Poetter.
•DeKooning, Chamberlain: Influence and Transformation. New York: PaceWildenstein, 2001. Text by Bernice Rose.
Birthplace: Rochester, Indiana[/fusion_builder_row][/fusion_builder_container]
Challenger’s work is a powerful interplay of op-art and constructivism. His graphic work evokes the counter- play of shapes, forms and color of his predecessors, including Albers and Escher; but in a stronger and yet playful way.
Although Challenger ably plots new horizons with his illusionist scenery, his concern is more with the credible realization of improbable figures without alienating his audience with an esoteric language.
He uses simple units and the flat, hard-edged colours are deployed with cool detachment and yet, in spite of clear-cut geometric shapes, his paintings always defy one interpretation.
About The Artist:
Challenger’s work is a powerful interplay of op-art and constructivism. His graphic work evokes the counter-play of shapes, forms and color of his predecessors, including Albers and Escher; but in a stronger and yet playful way.
Michael Challernger studied at the Goldsmiths’ College of Art (1960-64) and the Slade School of Art, London (1964-66). In the following years he taught at the Slade School, Goldsmiths’ College and the Chesterfield College of Art. He is a member of the Printmakers’ Council of Great Britain and was recipient of the Sainsbury Award in sculpture in 1966.
It is also interesting that Challenger credits the minimalist french composer Eric Satie with inspiration for his geometric work. It was from this musical notion of dissonance and resonance that his work emerges.
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Education: 1960-1946 Goldsmiths College of Art, London; 1964 Slade School of Art, London.
Awards and Honors: Taught at the Slade School of Art, Member of the Printmakers’ Council of Great Britain, received the Sainsbury Award in Sculpture.
Exhibitions: Numerous one man shows and group exhibitions since 1964 including Oxford College, the International Europhahaus, Vienna, the Fenna de Vries Gallery, Rotterdam, and many others.
Collections: including, but not limited to: Atlantic Richfield, New York; Victoria and Albert Museum, London; Drake University, Durham, North Carolina; Bowdoin College Museum of Art, Brunswick, Maine; The Jewish Federation, Pittsburgh, Boston College, Massachusetts; and many private and corporate collections throughout the world.
Michael Challenger seems obsessed with meticulous smoothness. His work depends on precision. Challenger’s paintings, sculpture, and prints explore a curious and fascinating world of perspective distortions.
What he deals in are visual impossibilities, but impossibilities of a subtle, rather than a brutal kind. The handful of pieces the gallery has room to exhibit unleashes a whole battery of virtuoso effects.
Edward Lucie-Smith (a prominent art critic) in the London Sunday Times
James Heard writing in Arts Review:
As my foot gingerly searched for an eccentrically placed rung when descending from Michael Challenger’s dingy loft studio, he compounded my discomfort with the warning: “Mind the steps. They’re in perspective.” This characteristic observation could well be used to summarize the work of a printmaker/sculptor who, after a very successful exhibition in Verona, is now set making himself heard in London, Detroit and New York. If one had to label his work, one might describe Challenger’s witty two-dimensional images as visual epigrams. He positions his solid-looking configurations in empty space where the onlookers’ perceptions are stretched to the limit to understand where the illusions occur and if they are relevant to the central idea.
Although Challenger ably plots new horizons with his illusionist scenery, his concern is more with the credible realization of improbable figures without alienating his audience with an esoteric language. He uses simple units and the flat, hard-edged colours are deployed with cool detachment and yet, in spite of clear-cut geometric shapes, his paintings always defy one interpretation. Most remarkably, Challenger is able to translate these ideas into stove enameled steel sculptures without sacrificing the wit or disquiet of his paintings and it is as a sculptor that Michael Challenger is undoubtedly going to make his mark.
BRITISH master painter and printmaker, Patrick Caulfield is best known for his POP artworks,
Trained at the Chelsea School of Art and Royal College of Art, his first one- man show was held at the Robert Fraser Gallery, London, in 1965. While he generally uses traditional subject matter, like landscapes and still-life, his style and approach to art, is reminiscent of Pop art.
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About The Artist:
Patrick Caulfield’s use of bright blocks of flat colour and thick black outlines became a hallmark of his style and has gone on to influence other artists such as Michael Craig-Martin and Julian Opie.
Caulfield was a slow worker with his paintings taking months to finish. In works such as After Lunch he inserted highly detailed photorealist sections into his characteristically stylized images, playing with the viewers definitions of reality and artifice.
Patrick Caulfield’s seemingly anonymous painting style is instantly recognisable. Although he disliked being identified with a particular art movement, he is often associated with British Pop Art because his subjects are often commercially produced or kitsch. However, unlike Pop Art he wasn’t interested in social realism or social comment and nor was his subject matter obviously contemporary or overtly American. Instead, he chose subjects that were ambiguous both in tone and context, such as images taken from manuals or cliched holiday destinations directly lifted from postcards. His paintings look like commercial advertising or a painting-by-numbers illustration because he removes all visible brush marks, limits his palette to bright bold colours in commercial gloss paint and surrounds his patches of flat colour with strong black outlines. Caulfield’s painting style was in part a reaction to the highly personalised painting style of Abstract Expressionism, but he was also strongly influenced by Fernand Leger and the Cubist painter Juan Gris.
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Patrick Caulfield is celebrated as one of Britain’s greatest Pop artists. A student at the Royal College of Art he is associated with contemporaries such as Derek Boshier, David Hockney, Allen Jones and R.B.Kitaj.
Using flat unmodulated colour contained by clear outlines, Caulfield’s work depicts the objects and places, often interiors, that were close to him.
1936 Born in London
1956-60 Chelsea School of Art, London
1960-63 Royal College of Art, London
1963 – 1971 Taught at Chelsea School of Art, London
1983 Commissioned to design the London Life mural for The London Life Association’s new headquarter in Bristol
1984 Commissioned to design the sets and costumes for Michael Corder’s new ballet ‘Party Game’ for the Royal Ballet at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden
1986 Selected The Artists’s Eye at the National Gallery, London
1991 Commissioned to design the carpet for the atrium of the British Council offices, Manchester
1994 Commissioned to design giant mosaic, ‘Flowers, Lily Pad, Pictures and Labels’, for the National Museum of Wales, Cardiff
1995 Commissioned to design sets and costumes for ‘Rhapsoldy’ for the Royal Ballet at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, London, England. Awarded the Jerwood Painting Prize
1996 Awarded C.B.E.
Performance of ‘Rhapsody’ at Opera National de Paris
1996 Awarded London Institute Honorary Fellowship
Lives and works in London
Selected Solo Exhibitions
2007 Patrick Caulfield, Waddington Galleries, London
2004 Patrick Caulfield, The Gallery at Manor Place, West Sussex, UK
2002 Patrick Caulfield: Paintings and Drawings 1985-2002, Waddington Galleries, London
2001 Patrick Caulfield, Pallant House, Chichester, UK
Patrick Caulfield, Galerie Papillon-Fiat, Paris, France
1999 Patrick Caulfield, Alan Cristea Gallery, London
Patrick Caulfield Retrospective, Hayward Gallery, London; Touring to Musee National d’Historie et d’Art, Luxembourg; Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon; Yale Center for the British Art, New Haven, Connecticut, USA 1998 Patrick Caulfield, Waddington Galleries, London, England
1997 Patrick Caulfield, Waddington Galleries, London, England 1996 Patrick Caulfield, Claudine Papillon, Paris, France 1994 Patrick Caulfield, Bodilly Galleries, Cambridge, England
1993 Patrick Caulfield, Galerie Claudine Papillon, Paris, France
1992 – 1993 Patrick Caulfield, Serpentine Gallery, London, England
1991 – 1992 Patrick Caulfield, Kilburn Tricycle Gallery, London, England
1989 – 1990 Patrick Caulfield, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon (continuation of 1987 British Council print retrospective): Touring to Guimares, North Portugal; Serrales Foundation, Oporto
1990 Patrick Caulfield, Music Theatre Gallery, London, England 1989 Patrick Caulfield, Waddington Galleries, London: Touring to Tony Shafrazi Gallery, New York (solo)
1988 Patrick Caulfield, Cleveland Gallery, Middlesborough (print retrospective) solo 1985 – 1987 Patrick Caulfield, National Museum of Fine Art, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (British Council print retrospective): Touring to Federal University Espirito Santo, Vitoria, Brazil; University of Campinas, Brazil; Museum of Sao Paulo; Palacio das Artes, Belos Horizonte, Brazil; Sociedade Brasileira Cultura Inglesa, Londrina; Cultural Foundation of Curitba, Brazil; Cultural Foundation of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brazil; Institute of Arts of Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Museo Nacional de Artes Plasticas y Visuales, montevideo, Uraguay; Instituto Cultural de Las Condes, santiago, Chile; Sala Vina, Vina del Mar, Chile; Museo de Bellas Artes, Concepcion, Chile (solo) 1985 Patrick Caulfield, Waddington Galleries, London, England
1983 Patrick Caulfield: Print Retrospective, Arnolfini Gallery, Bristol, England
1982 Patrick Caulfield: Retrospective, Nishimura Gallery, Tokyo, Japan
1981 Patrick Caulfield: Paintings 1963-81, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool (retrospective): Touring to Tate Gallery, London
Patrick Caulfield, Waddington Galleries, London
1980 Patrick Caulfield, Tolarno Galleries, Melbourne, Australia
1980 Patrick Caulfield, Gardner Centre for the Arts, University of Sussex, Brighton (Welsh Arts Council print exhibition): Touring to Midland Group, Nottingham; Oriel, Cardiff
1979 Patrick Caulfield, Waddington Galleries, London, England
1978 Patrick Caulfield, Tate Gallery, London, England
1977 Patrick Caulfield, Tortue Gallery, Santa Monica, California (print retrospective): Touring to Phoenix Art Museum, Arizona
1976 Patrick Caulfield: recent paintings and prints, Arnolfini Gallery, Bristol
1975 Patrick Caulfield, Waddington Galleries, London, England
Patrick Caulfield, Scottish Arts Council Gallery, Edinburgh, Ireland
Patrick Caulfield, Bluecoat Gallery, Liverpool
1974 Patrick Caulfield, O.K. Harris Works of Art, New York
1973 Patrick Caulfield, Waddington Galleries, London, England
1972 Patrick Caulfield, Sweeney Reed Galleries, Victoria, Australia
1971 Patrick Caulfield, Waddington Galleries, London, England
Patrick Caulfield, D.M. Gallery, London, England
1969 Patrick Caulfield, Waddington Galleries, London, England 1968 Patrick Caulfield, Robert Elkon Gallery, New York
1967 Patrick Caulfield, Robert Fraser Gallery, London
Patrick Caulfield, Studio Marconi, Milan, Italy
1966 Patrick Caulfield, Robert Elkon Gallery, New York
1965 Patrick Caulfield, Robert Fraser Gallery, London
2004 Pop Art UK: British Pop Art 1956-1972, Palazzo Santa Margherita, Palazzina dei Giardini (Galleria Civica di Modena), Modena, Italy
Art and the 60s: This Was Tomorrow, Tate Britain, London; touring to Gas Hall, Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery, Birmingham, UK
2002-2003 Blast to Freeze: British Art in the 20th Century, Kunstmuseum Wolfsburg, Germany: touring to Les Abattoirs, Toulouse, France 100 Years of the National Art Collections Fund, Hayward Gallery, London
2002 United Kingdom United States, Waddington Galleries, London
Summer Exhibition, Royal Academy of Arts, London 2001 The Whitechapel Centenary Exhibition, Whitechapel Art Gallery, London
Pop Art US/UK Connections 1956-1966, The Menil Collection, Houston, Texas, USA
Les Annee Pop 1956-1968, Centre Pompidou, Paris, France
Verbal Inter Visual: Linking Worlds of Art and Poetry, Lethaby Galleries, Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design, London
My Generation/Fluid, Wolverhampton Art Gallery, Wolverhampton, UK Distinctions: Twentieth Century Drawings and Watercolours from the British Council Collection, Milton Keynes Gallery, Milton Keynes, UK 2000 Encounters, National Gallery, London
Blue: Borrowed and Bew, The New Art Gallery, Walsall, UK
1998 – 1999 Thinking Aloud, curated by Richard Wentworth, Kettle’s Yard, Cambridge: touring to Cornerhouse, Manchester, Camden Arts Centre, London
POP-TASTIC, Wolverhampton Art Gallery, Wolverhampton, UK
1999 Signature Pieces, Alan Cristea Gallery, London
1997 Within These Walls, Kettle’s Yard, Cambridge, England
1995 Paintings from the 60s and 70s: Peter Blake, Patrick Caulfield and Howard Hodgkin, Waddington, England
Jerwood Painting Prize Exhibition, Royal Scottish Academy, Edinburgh: touring to the Royal Academy of Arts, London, England
1994 Here and Now, Serpentine Gallery, London, England
1993 The Sixties Art Scene in London, Barbican Art Gallery, London, England
1991-92 Pop Art, Royal Academy of Arts, London: Touring to Museum Ludwig at Kunsthalle Koln; Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Madrid, Spain
1992 Ready, Steady, Go: Painting of the Sixties from the Arts Council Collection, Royal Festival Hall, London, England: Touring Britain
1991 British Art from 1930, Waddington Galleries, London, England
1991 Works for the Stage, Music Theatre Gallery, London, England
1990 – 1991 For a Wider World: Sixty Works in the British Council Collection, The British Council, Ukrainian National Museum, Kiev, Ukraine
1988 – 1989 100 Years of Art in Britain, Leeds City Art Gallery
1988 Exhibition Road, 150th Anniversary Exhibition, Royal College of Art, London
1987 British Art in the Twentieth Century: The Modern Movement, Royal Academy of Arts, London, England
Pop Art USA-UK: American and British artists of the 60s in the 80s, Odakyu Grand Gallery, Tokyo: touring to Daimaru Museum, Osaka; Funabashi Seibu Museum of Art, Funabashi; Sogo Museum of Art, Yokohama
The Turner Prize, Tate Gallery, London, England
2D/3D – Art and Craft Made and Designed for the Twentieth Century, Laing Art Gallery, Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Touring to Northern Centre for Contemporary Art, Sunderland
1986 Forty Years of Modern Art 1945-85, Tate Gallery, London, England
The Artist’s Eye, National Gallery, London, England
Little and Large, Waddington Galleries, London, England
1985 18 Bienal de Sao Paolo, Brazil organised by the British Council (with Stuart Brisley, John Davies and Paula Rego)
1985 The Irresistible Object: Still Life 1600-1985, Leeds City Art Gallery, Leeds
1982 Aspects of British Art Today, Tokyo Metropolitan Art Museum, Tokyo, Japan: Touring to Tochigi Prefectural Museum of Fine Arts, Utsunomiya; National Museum of Art, Osaka; Fukuoka Art Museum; Hokkaido Museum of Modern Art, Sapporo, Japan
1980 Hayward Annual, Hayward Gallery, London, England
Kelpra Studio: The Rose and Chris Prater Gift, Tate Gallery, London, England
1979 Understanding Prints, Waddington Graphics, London, England
1975 Body and Soul: Peter Moores Liverpool Project 3, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, England
1974 British Painting 74, Hayward Gallery, London, England
1972 Caulfield, Hodgkin, Moon, Galerie Stadler, Paris, France
Fourteen BIG Prints, Bernard Jacobson Gallery, London, England
1969 Pop Art, Hayward Gallery, London, England
John Moores Liverpool Exhibition 7, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, England
House Exhibition, Waddington Galleries, London, England
1968 The Obseeive Image, ICA, London, England
Painting 1964-67, Hayward Gallery, England
1967 Drawing Towards Painting 2, Arts Council Gallery, London, England: Touring to Stoke-on-Trent; Northampton; Oldham; Cardiff, St Ives’ Reading; Liverpool; Bradford; Norwich; Scarborough; Glasgow
9 Bienal de Sao Paulo, Brazil
5 Biennale des Jeunes Artistes, Musee d’Art Moderne, Paris
1st Edinburgh Open 100 Exhibition, Edinburgh
Recent British Painting, Peter Stuyvesant Foundation Collection, Tate Gallery, London, England
1965 4 Biennale, Salon de la Jeune Peinture – Musee d’Art Moderne, Paris, France: awarded Prix des
1964 The New Generation, Whitechapel Art Gallery, London, England
1963 Young Contemporaries, R.B.A. Galleries, London, England
1962 Young Contemporaries, R.B.A. Galleries, London, England
1961 Young Contemporaries, R.B.A. Galleries, London, England
Harry N Abrams Collections, New York Arts Council of Great Britain, London Art Gallery of Western Australia, Perth Birmingham City Art Gallery British Council, London and Manchester Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon Castle Museum, Norwich Dallas Museum, Texas Delaware Art Museum, Wilmington Department of the Environment, London Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institute, Washington D.C. Kunsthalle Bielefeld, Germany Manchester City Art Gallery Musée National d’Histoire et d’Art, Luxembourg National Gallery of Australia, Canberra National Museum of Wales, Cardiff Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh Sintra Museum of Modern Art, Portugal – The Berardo Collection Peter Stuyvesant Foundation, London Tate Gallery, London Tochigi Prefectural Museum of Fine Arts, Japan Victoria and Albert Museum, London Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester
Caulfield, P., Patrick Caulfield Prints 1964-81 (Waddington Galleries, 1981)
Gooding, M., Patrick Caulfield: The Complete Prints 1964-1999 (Alan Cristea Gallery, 1999) Livingstone, M., Patrick Caulfield: Paintings (Lund Humphries, 2007)
Papadakis, A., Patrick Caulfield: Paintings 1963-1992 (Art & Design) (Wiley Academy, 1992)
Carter’s works had been labeled, surrealism, Magic Realism, geometric abstraction, pop and op, but no category could capture his style completely. It was in the mid-1960’s, in his series called “Mandalas,” that his fascination with the egg-shaped ovoid began. Author James A. Michener has commented that the egg in Carter’s works is “. . . a mysterious symbol evoking the past, the origins, the overtones of Christianity.” In addition, Carter has painted murals for a number of buildings. He also has taught, lectured and judged at such notable schools as The Minneapolis School of Art, Ohio. University, Lafayette College, Iowa State and his alma mater. On his works Carter has said: “for me no great art has ever existed without some mystery and some awe. It is that intangible which can never be defined but only felt in an elusive way that stirs the spirit.”
“Jon Carsman did for suburban and hometown views what Edward Hopper did for cities, except Carsman exchewed a human presence.”
Annette Dixon, curator of the University of Michigan Museum.
Jon Carsman found the source of his inspiration in the play of color and light reflected across the framed houses, streets and country sides of small town America. His paintings synthesize realism and fantasy.
Color is an important factor in Carsman’s work. His pallet is vibrant and intense. Carsman isolates strong areas of color in juxtaposition with dark outline; the colors become crystallized motifs with a sparkling jewel-like quality. Color is the greatest emotional factor in painting and Carsman uses this device very successfully. Carsman paints broad areas of vivid high-key tones with a surprising effect that creates a dynamic interplay of light and shadow.
An important work of art is one offering rich opportunity for aesthetic investigation. For this reason the paintings of Jon Carsman are of exceptional interest. His works reveal a consistent stylistic morphology; his links to the traditions of American realist painting demonstrate historical sophistication, and his works contribute significantly to the overall development of the new Realist style. Super Realism, a relatively new style that has emerged in America and Western Europe, is recognized as a major development in the history of comtemporary art. It is a style that, in all probablility, could not have been imagined twenty years ago when all serious art was primarily non-objective and based upon the painterly discoveries of Existentially oriented Abstract Expressionist art. Gregory Battcock, A singular Intensity, the Art of Jon Carsmancatalogue for touring show to Syracuse, Oklahoma City and Wichita, 1978.
Jon Carsman was born in Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania surrounded by the Applalachian Mountain Range where he found his inspiration in the play of color and light reflected across the framed houses, streets and countryside of small town America.
Collections Hunstsville Museum of Art;Mobile Museum of Art;Phoenix Art Museum;Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center; Denver Art Museum; Museum of Fine Arts-St. Petersburg; Georgia Museum of Art; The University of Michigan Museum of Art; Weatherspoon Art Museum; Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery, Newark Museum; Brooklyn Museum of Art; Parrish Art Museum; Columbus Museum of Art; Miami University Art Museum; Hunter Museum of American Art; Cheekwood Museum of Art & Botanical Garden;Metropolitan Museum of Art, Neuberger Museum of Art and many other private and public collections.
“I want, with the woodland scenes, to create certain phenomena that take place in nature. I want to paint wonderful pools of water with shimmering reflections.”
Birthplace: Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania
Calder was the most acclaimed and influential sculptor of his time. Born in a family of celebrated, though more classically trained artists, Calder utilized his innovative genius to profoundly change the course of modern art. He began by developing a new method of sculpting: by bending and twisting wire, he essentially “drew” three-dimensional figures in space. He is renowned for the invention of the mobile, whose suspended, abstract elements move and balance in changing harmony. Calder also devoted himself to making.
Alexander Calder was born in 1898, the second child of artist parents– his father was a sculptor and his mother a painter. Because his father Alexander Stirling Calder received public commissions, the family traversed the country throughout Calder’s childhood. Calder was encouraged to create, and from the age of eight he always had his own workshop wherever* the family lived. For Christmas in 1909, Calder presented his parents with two of his first sculptures, a tiny dog and duck cut from a brass sheet and bent into formation. The duck is kinetic– it rocks back and forth when tapped. Even at age eleven, his facility in handling materials was apparent.
Despite his talents, Calder did not originally set out to become an artist. He instead enrolled at the Stevens Institute of Technology after high school and graduated in 1919 with an engineering degree. Calder worked for several years after graduation at various jobs, including as hydraulics engineer and automotive engineer, timekeeper in a logging camp, and fireman in a ship’s boiler room. While serving in the latter occupation, on a ship from New York bound for San Francisco, Calder awoke on the deck to see both a brilliant sunrise and a scintillating full moon; each was visible on opposite horizons (the ship then lay off the Guatemalan coast). The experience made a lasting impression on Calder: he would refer to it throughout his life.
Calder committed to becoming an artist shortly thereafter, and in 1923 he moved to New York and enrolled at the Art Students’ League. He also took a job illustrating for the National Police Gazette, which sent him to the Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus to sketch circus scenes for two weeks in 1925. The circus became a lifelong interest of Calder’s, and after moving to Paris in 1926, he created his Cirque Calder, a complex and unique body of art. The assemblage included diminutive performers, animals, and props he had observed at the Ringling Brothers Circus. Fashioned from wire, leather, cloth, and other found materials, Cirque Calder was designed to be manipulated manually by Calder. Every piece was small enough to be packed into a large trunk, enabling the artist to carry it with him and hold performances anywhere. Its first performance was held in Paris for an audience of friends and peers, and soon Calder was presenting the circus in both Paris and New York to much success. Calder’s renderings of his circus often lasted about two hours and were quite elaborate. Indeed, the Cirque Calder predated performance art by forty years.
Calder found he enjoyed working with wire for his circus: he soon began to sculpt from this material portraits of his friends and public figures of the day. Word traveled about the inventive artist, and in 1928 Calder was given his first solo gallery show at the Weyhe Gallery in New York. The show at Weyhe was soon followed by others in New York, as well as in Paris and Berlin: as a result, Calder spent much time crossing the ocean by boat. He met Louisa James (a grandniece of writer Henry James) on one of these steamer journeys and the two were married in January 1931. He also became friendly with many prominent artists and intellectuals of the early twentieth century at this time, including Joan Miró, Fernand Léger, James Johnson Sweeney, and Marcel Duchamp. In October 1930 Calder visited the studio of Piet Mondrian in Paris and was deeply impressed by a wall of colored, paper rectangles that Mondrian continually repositioned for compositional experiments. He recalled later in life that this experience “shocked” him toward total abstraction. For three weeks following this visit, he created solely abstract paintings, only to discover that he did indeed prefer sculpture to painting. Soon after, he was invited to join Abstraction-Création, an influential group of artists (including Arp, Mondrian, and Hélion) with whom he had become friendly.
In the fall of 1931, a significant turning point in Calder’s artistic career occurred when he created his first truly kinetic sculpture and gave form to an entirely new type of art. The first of these objects moved by systems of cranks and motors, and were dubbed “mobiles” by Marcel Duchamp, for in French mobile refers to both motion and motive. Calder soon abandoned the mechanical aspects of these works when he realized he could fashion mobiles that would undulate on their own with the air’s currents. Jean Arp, in order to differentiate Calder’s non-kinetic works from his kinetic works, named Calder’s stationary objects “stabiles.”
In 1933, Calder and Louisa left France and returned to the United States, where they purchased an old farmhouse in Roxbury, Connecticut. Calder converted an icehouse attached to the main house into a studio for himself. Their first daughter, Sandra, was born in 1935, and a second daughter, Mary, followed in 1939. He also began his association with the Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York with his first show there in 1934. James Johnson Sweeney, who had become a close friend, wrote the catalogue’s preface. Calder also constructed sets for ballets by both Martha Graham and Eric Satie during the 1930s, and continued to give Cirque Calder performances.
Calder’s earliest attempts at large, outdoor sculptures were also constructed in this decade. These predecessors of his later imposing public works were much smaller and more delicate; the first attempts made for his garden were easily bent in strong winds. Yet, they are indicative of his early intentions to work on a grand scale. In 1937, Calder created his first large bolted stabile fashioned entirely from sheet metal, which he entitled Devilfish. Enlarged from an earlier and smaller stabile, the work was exhibited in a Pierre Matisse Gallery show, Stabiles and Mobiles. This show also included Big Bird, another large work based on a smaller maquette. Soon after, Calder received commissions to make both Mercury Fountain for the Spanish Pavilion at the Parisian World Fair (a work that symbolized Spanish Republican resistance to fascism) and Lobster Trap and Fish Tail, a sizable mobile installed in the main stairwell of the Museum of Modern Art in New York.
When the United States entered World War II Calder applied for entry to the Marine Corps but was ultimately rejected. He continued to create: because metal was in short supply during the war years, Calder turned increasingly to wood as a sculptural medium. Working in wood resulted in yet another original form of sculpture, works called “constellations” by Sweeney and Duchamp. With their carved wood elements anchored by wire, the constellations were so called because they suggested the cosmos, though Calder did not intend that they represent anything in particular. The Pierre Matisse Gallery held an exhibition of these works in the spring of 1943, Calder’s last solo show at that gallery. His association with Matisse ended shortly thereafter and he took up the Buchholz Gallery/Curt Valentin as his New York representation.
The forties and fifties were a remarkably productive period for Calder, which was launched in 1939 with the first retrospective of his work at the George Walter Vincent Smith Gallery in Springfield, Massachusetts. A second, major retrospective was exhibited at the Museum of Modern Art in New York just a few years later, in 1943. In 1945, Calder made a series of small-scale works; in keeping with his economy, many were made from scraps of metal trimmed while making larger pieces. While visiting Calder’s studio about this time, Marcel Duchamp was intrigued by these small works. Inspired by the idea that the works could be easily dismantled, mailed to Europe, and re-assembled for an exhibition, he planned a Calder show at Galerie Louis Carré in Paris. This important show was held the following year and Jean-Paul Sartre wrote his famous essay on Calder’s mobiles for the exhibition catalogue. In 1949, Calder constructed his largest mobile to date, International Mobile, for the Philadelphia Museum of Art’s Third International Exhibition of Sculpture. He designed sets for Happy as Larry, a play directed by Burgess Meredith, and for Nuclea, a dance performance directed by Jean Vilar. Galerie Maeght in Paris also held a Calder show in 1950, and subsequently became Calder’s exclusive Parisian dealer. His association with Galerie Maeght lasted twenty-six years, until his death in 1976. After his New York dealer Curt Valentin died unexpectedly in 1954, Calder selected the Perls Gallery in New York as his new American dealer, and this alliance also lasted until the end of his life.
Calder concentrated his efforts primarily on large-scale commissioned works in his later years. Some of these major monumental sculpture commissions include: .125, a mobile for the New York Port Authority that was hung in Idlewild (now John F. Kennedy) Airport (1957); La Spirale, for UNESCO, in Paris (1958); Teodelapio, for the city of Spoleto, Italy (1962); Man, for the Expo in Montreal (1967); El Sol Rojo (the largest of all Calder’s works, at sixty-seven feet high) installed outside the Aztec Stadium for the Olympic Games in Mexico City; La Grande Vitesse, the first public art work to be funded by the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) for the city of Grand Rapids, Michigan (1969); and Flamingo, a stabile for the General Services Administration in Chicago (1973).
As the range and breadth of his various projects and commissions indicate, Calder’s artistic talents were renowned worldwide by the 1960s. A retrospective of his work opened at the Guggenheim Museum in New York in 1964. Five years later the Fondation Maeght, in Saint-Paul-de-Vence, France, held its own Calder retrospective. In 1966, Calder, together with his son-in-law Jean Davidson, published a well-received autobiography. Additionally, both of Calder’s dealers, Galerie Maeght in Paris and the Perls Gallery in New York averaged about one Calder show each per year.
In 1976, he attended the opening of yet another retrospective of his work, Calder’s Universe, at the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York. Just a few weeks later, Calder died at the age of seventy-eight, ending the most prolific and innovative artistic career of the twentieth century.
Early Years: 1898-1930
Born in Pennsylvania in 1898, Alexander Calder created works of art throughout his childhood. After graduating from the Stevens Institute of Technology and briefly considering an engineering career, Calder became a professional artist in his early twenties. He moved to New York and attended classes at the Art Students League while working concurrently as an illustrator for the National Police Gazette. A series of the Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus was included amongst these illustrations. Soon after moving to Paris in 1926, Calder developed his Cirque Calder, a miniature work of performance art made of wire and found materials. Performances of the Cirque Calder gained Calder introduction to artists in Paris, then the center of the art world. He also invented wire sculpture whereby Calder “drew” in space with wire portraits of friends and personalities of the day. In 1928, he was given his first solo exhibition of these wire sculptures at the Weyhe Gallery in New York.
Calder made his first wholly abstract works during these crucial years of artistic development. He invented the kinetic sculpture now known as the “mobile.” Coined by Marcel Duchamp, the word refers to both “motion” and “motive” in French. The earliest mobiles moved by a system of cranks and motors, although these mechanics were virtually abandoned as Calder fully developed mobiles that moved freely with the air’s currents. He also created stationary abstract works made of intersecting planes of shapes, which Jean Arp (playing off Duchamp’s term) referred to as “stabiles.” The first of Calder’s outdoor works–predecessors of his later monumental sculpture–were fabricated during this era as well.
The War Years: 1937-1945
Calder’s travels were curtailed by the onslaught of the second World War, yet he remained active throughout its duration. Calder completed Devilfish, his first stabile enlarged from a small model, in 1937. Soon afterwards, he received two important commissions: Mercury Fountain for the Spanish Pavilion at the 1937 Paris World Fair (a work that symbolized Spanish Republican resistance to fascism), and the mobile Lobster Trap and Fish Tail, 1939, which was installed in the main stairwell of the new Museum of Modern Art building in New York. Calder made a series of “constellations;” that is, constructions of delicately carved wood elements affixed to inflexible wires. The George Walter Vincent Smith Gallery of Springfield, Massachusetts held the first retrospective of his work in 1938. Another retrospective followed in 1943 at the Museum of Modern Art, New York. At the time, Calder was the youngest artist ever to whom the Museum had dedicated a full-career survey.
The Prolific Years: 1945-1953
Eager to exhibit again in Europe after the end of World War II, Calder held a major show of his work at Galerie Louis Carré, Paris in 1946. Jean-Paul Sartre wrote a seminal essay on Calder’s work for the exhibition catalogue. In 1948, Calder spent several inspirational weeks in Brazil where he created many works and held two highly successful exhibitions in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. International Mobile, made in 1949 for the Philadelphia Museum of Art’s Third International Exhibition of Sculpture, was Calder’s largest mobile to date, at approximately twenty feet high. He designed sets and costumes for a number of theatrical performances. Another important commission was the Aula Magna, a huge acoustic ceiling he designed for the auditorium at Universidad Central de Venezuela.
Late Years: 1953-1976
Calder devoted much of his later working years to commissions he received for public, monumental works. Some of his most important projects include: .125, a mobile hung in John F. Kennedy Airport, New York (forty-five feet high; Teodelapio, for the town of Spoleto, Italy (fifty-eight feet high); Man, for the 1967 exposition in Montreal (sixty-five feet high); El Sol Rojo, for the 1968 Mexico City Olympic Games (eighty feet high); and the first public art work funded by the National Endowment for the Arts, La Grande Vitesse, for Grand Rapids, Michigan (forty-three feet high). He also designed and painted two jets for Braniff Airlines. His two dealers, Galerie Maeght in Paris and Perls Gallery in New York, averaged about one Calder show each per year. Major retrospectives of Calder’s work were held at the Guggenheim Museum in New York (1964), Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (1964), Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris (1965), the Fondation Maeght in Saint-Paul-de-Vence, France (1969), and the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York (1976). Calder died in New York in 1976, at the age of seventy-eight.
Birthplace: Pennsylvania, USA
Fran Bull is best known for wildlife and other water-reflected images such as boats sailing down a river, sculpture reflected in a pond and buildings mirrored in lakes. Each of her paintings contain subtle tonal changes remarkably sensitive to the light source, usually the sun, and each image also involves the monumentous task of having to create perspective in a moving flow of water.
Like many other Photorealist artists, Bull begins with photographic images as the source of her inspiration.
“I look for qualities in a photograph, which will give rise to any number of painting possibilities. A transformation occurs in the process of focusing on the parts of a photographic image, and then. by means of art, representing these parts. In general Photo-Realism, and particularly what I do, deals intimately with building a whole from intensely realized parts.”
Born in Orange, New Jersey, in 1938. Bull received a degree in Fine Arts from Bennington College in Vermont and a Masters degree in Fine Arts.
Bull currently teaches painting at New York University and exhibits in important public exhibitions.
Speed Art Museum, Louisville. Kentucky
Haight Cundy Collection. New York
Morgan Gallery. Shawnee Mission, Kansas
Ho Alveryd Cotiection, Malmo. Sweden
1975. 1978 Louis K. Meisel Gallery, New York
1976 Morgan Art Gallery. Shawnee Mission, Kansas
“I look for qualities in a photograph, which will give rise to any number of painting possibilities. A transformation occurs in the process of focusing on the parts of a photographic image, and then. by means of art, representing these parts. In general Photo-Realism, and particularly what I do, deals intimately with building a whole from intensely realized parts.”
Birthplace: Orange, New Jersey
American contemporary painter and printmaker, Jack Brusca is best known for his unique approach to space and figures, in his art. As an illusionist who manipulates letters, numbers and flowers among things, Brusca’s keen sense of spatial dimension and color blend to give his work a theatrical-type light.
“… (Brusca’s) geometrical forms are painted with a degree of illusion-ism that makes a metal band seem to arch away from the wall, turning the painting into sculpture”. John Canady (The New York Times)
Intricate and surrelistic images are rendered in technically outstanding etchings. In 1974 she published her first Livre d’Artiste, Aphrodite. She is also a painter, and since 2002 she has begun to work on digitally enhanced images. These early images of her work foreshadow her continued work in the inner workings of the mind.
Ann Brunskill exhibits skilled competence with colored etching. Her images are overflowing with intricate detail, in an organic and playful way. She is also an honored author of hand made books.